Cognitive dissonance was first introduced through social psychology, but still plays a fundamental role in public relations. However, in the omnibus analysis of covariance, the cognitive dissonance and social consensus interventions did not significantly reduce overall obesity stigma p 0. Cognitive dissonance explains why people change their attitudes or behaviors when they are introduced to new and contradicting information. Cognitive dissonance theory shows that in cases where these conflicts arise, people will stick with their core believes despite evidence to the contrary. An introduction to cognitive dissonance theory and an. Pdf cognitive dissonance and experienced negative affect. Cognitive dissonance is an unpleasant state of arousal caused by conflict. The present research sought to address this lacuna in research on cognitive dissonance theory. The original statement of cognitive dissonance theory festinger, 1957 proposed that. Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Cognitive dissonance theory has implications for prevention of acquaintance rape. The magnitude of dissonance between one cognitive element and the remainder of the persons cognitions depends on the number and importance of cognitions that are consonant and dissonant with the one in question.
Cognitive dissonance theory links actions and attitudes. It refers to the mental conflict that occurs when a persons behaviors and beliefs do not align. Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term describing the uncomfortable tension that may result from having two conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts. The effects of cognitive dissonance on inappropriate. Cognitive dissonance theory social emotive neuroscience lab. Summary the study was conducted to investigate whether or not the arousal of cognitive dissonance can produce longterm behavioral effects. We are afraid to talk about racism and the cognitive. Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. Thus, for example, if dissonance existed between some cognitive elements concerning the effects of smoking and cognition concerning the behavior of continuing to smoke, the total dissonance could be reduced by adding new cognitive elements that are consonant with the fact of. Start studying social psychology cognitive dissonance. Actionbased model of dissonance department of psychology. The effects of asset impairment reversibility and cognitive dissonance on future investment. Also in line with cognitive dissonance theory, we show that managers who are not responsible for the decision to impair the asset, or managers who are given the opportunity to deny responsibility for the asset impairment, do not differ in their investment in the impaired division, regardless of impairment reversibility. This produces a feeling of mental discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance.
According to festinger, the important factor in cognitive dissonance theory is the principle of cognitive consistency. Null effects are difficult to explain and subject to multiple alternatives. A common example of cognitive dissonance occurs in the purchasing decisions we make on a regular basis. According to psychologist leon festingers seminal cognitive dissonance theory, we have a drive that motivates us to reduce psychological discomfort and create consistency among our beliefs. According to the cognitive dissonance theory, an individual makes one of four choices to reduce dissonance. This approach is based on the hypotheticodeductive method, which involves the following processes. The origins of cognitive dissonance yale university. Insofar as the theory goes, religion is one helpful mechanism for avoiding cognitive dissonance, as religion often provides an explanation for the nature and generation of the world, as well as a set of guidelines to follow. Behar, duke university in most emotionally arousmg situations, the mdividual is usually aware of the cause of his emotional reaction he probably would feel confident that his reaction is justified if it were. An actionbased model of cognitive dissonance processes.
According to social exchange theory, perceived benefits in the form of incentives to participate must outweigh the costs of participation i. Cognitive dissonance theory has been known to play out in several ways. One may choose to 1 assimilate the dissonant cognition and change beliefs accordingly, 2 alter his or her conceptualization of the dissonant cognition to fit his or her existing mindset, 3 augment his or her explanation for a. A cognitive dissonance approach harvard university. According to dissonance theory, selfesteem is threatened by inconsistency. The theory of cognitive dissonance essay example 877. Cognitive dissonance burst onto the academic scene in 1957, but its roots can be traced back to the influence that kurt lewin had on leon festinger. Cognitive dissonance theory is based on three fundamental assumptions see figure 1.
This revision proposes that the effects observed in dissonance situations are not the result of cognitive inconsistency or self inconsistency. The magnitude of dissonance is directly proportional to the number of discrepant cognitions and inversely proportional to the number of consonant cognitions that a person has. Influencing republicans and democrats attitudes toward. Cognitive dissonance theory might be more important in explaining the lefts mindset than we appreciate. Festingers 1957 cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and behavior in harmony and avoid disharmony or dissonance. This paper discusses the aspects of the cognitive dissonance theory. Humans have an inner drive to maintain harmony between continue reading. It occurs both when someone performs an action that contradicts personal beliefs and also when someone is confronted with new information. First, the lack of attitude change in the noaversive consequences conditions is a null effect.
Leon festinger, one such noted social psychologist, explained that people, in the course of their daily lives, hold a myriad of cognitions simultaneously. This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency. The number of variations within this approach to selfevaluation regulation is also substantial. This cognitive dissonance experienced by students when religious or spiritual beliefs conflict with college experiences or new knowledge is the basis of this study. Rupar, and nicholas seybert 2015 impaired judgment. Keech, that the earth was going to be destroyed on december 21 and that only those people who were part of the cult would be rescued by aliens and saved from earths demise. Pdf the effects of cognitive dissonance on interpersonal. The psychological fields generated the concept and theory of cognitive dissonance e. The theory of cognitive dissonance festinger, 1957. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive or need to reduce dissonance which has been shown to occur in several different ways, depending on the situation and the individual. Cognitive dissonance theory, first proposed by festinger 1957, has generated.
Cognitive dissonance and experienced negative affect. Indeed, the concept of cognitive dissonance has entered popular speech, even political campaigns. Cognitive dissonance theory in social psychology iresearchnet. Impacts of cognitive dissonance in the workplace theory of cognitive dissonance cd describes a condition of stress, or a feeling of internal discomfort caused by conflicting ideas, values, beliefs or practices. Oct 21, 2019 cognitive dissonance causes feelings of unease and tension, and people attempt to relieve this discomfort in different ways. First, the lack of attitude change in the noaver siveconsequences conditions is a null effect. This cognitive dissonance is what we see daily, as whites try to say that america is and always has been the land of the free and the home of the brave. This simple observation led to the development of a theory that became very controversial, and it would be this controversy that propelled the theory forward. Children longterm behavioral effects 155 were told not to play with a very desirable toy under high or low threat, and were left alone with the toy. Relevant theories are social exchange theory and cognitive dissonance theory. It holds that dissonance is experienced whenever one cognition that a person holds follows from the opposite of at least one other cognition that the person holds. The present experiment was designed to test the effects of cognitive dissonance on interpersonal.
Cognitivedissonancetheory after50yearsofdevelopment. Hypocrisy, a branch of the theory of cognitive dissonance, has been induced with regards to health and prosocial causes, but has not been applied to the field of higher education. Starting in the late 1950s, people started to look at cognitive dissonance, particularly leon festinger and his students at stanford, who wrote the book a theory of cognitive dissonance. The most famous and widely cited of these theories is cognitive dissonance cdt.
The impact of cognitive dissonance theory continued from the late 1950s to the mid1970s. Lewin was a proponent of field theory as the lens through which to view human behavior lewin, 1951. Cognitive dissonance can occur in many areas of life, but it is particularly evident in situations where an individuals behavior conflicts with beliefs that are integral to his or her selfidentity. A cognitive dissonance theory perspective on the role of.
Of experimental social psychology 1, 145155 1965 longterm behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance jonathan l. May 11, 2012 theory of cognitive dissonance the theory of cognitive dissonance has been the subject of interest and study of social psychologists in particular. Thus, cognitive dissonance was the only successful intervention in this study. In this sense, festingers theory of cognitive dissonance and its in. Festinger developed the theory to explain how members of a cult, the seekers, were persuaded by their leader, mrs. But even before festinger was the greek fabulist aesop. Read on to learn more about cognitive dissonance and its effects. An example of this approach is cognitive dissonance theory festinger 1957.
Jul 12, 2010 behavioral studies on cognitive dissonance provide evidence for decisioninduced attitude change, but these studies cannot fully uncover the mechanisms driving the attitude change because only pre and postdecision attitudes are measured, rather than the process of change itself. The theory of cognitive dissonance was developed in 1957 by a social psychologist named leon festinger. According to festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when peoples thoughts and feelings are inconsistent with their behavior, which results in an uncomfortable, disharmonious feeling. Santos, and paul bloom yale university abstract n in a study explo ring the orig ins of cogni tive diss onance, presc hoole rs and capu chins were give n a choic e betw een two equa lly prefe rred alte rnatives two. How cognitive dissonance affects us in crazy political times. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors dissonance, something must change to eliminate the. An introduction to the theory of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance theory an overview sciencedirect.
Cognitive dissonance is the psychological theory that describes the discomfort that results from holding two or more opposing beliefs, and you likely. In cognitive dissonance theory, there are several underlying themes, most notably that of religion in cognitive dissonance. Behavioral studies on cognitive dissonance provide evidence for decisioninduced attitude change, but these studies cannot fully uncover the mechanisms driving the attitude change because only pre and postdecision attitudes are measured, rather than the process of change itself. With a growing interest in purely cognitive processes such as information processes, the popularity of dissonance theory declined. Even though the effects of cognitive dissonance are everpresent in the political. Cognitive dissonance a cognitive theory of motivation. Cd is among the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology e. Longterm behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc. Understanding cognitive dissonance in smoking behaviour. Leon festinger, in the late 1950s proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance. This paper examines the origins of the theory and the controversies it engendered.
Another argument that may support the use of the environmental frame for animal advocacy is related with behavioral and attitudinal change. Essentially, this is a situation where two or more opposing thoughts are causing psychological discomfort. Freedman stanford university since the publication of a theory of cognitive dissonance festinger, 1957, a large number of studies have been conducted to test a variety of deductions from the theory. Cognitive dissonance theory has had a more illustrious career than its politicalscience and sociological equivalents. A cognitive dissonance approach avidit acharya, stanford university matthew blackwell, harvard university maya sen, harvard university the standard approach in positive political theory posits that action choices are the consequences of preferences. The cognitive dissonance theory and its function in public. The standard approach in positive political theory posits that action choices are the consequences of preferences. Proposed by festinger, the cognitive dissonance theory asserts that people often have two conflicting or inconsistent cognitions which produce a state of tension or discomfort also known as dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is a theory in social psychology.
Social psychology cognitive dissonance flashcards quizlet. Hence, in smokers case, knowing cigarettes will cause harm on their health yet they are smoking, will induce the psychological discomfort. Abstractcognitive dissonance occurs when ones belief is contradicting with the behavior, according to festingers cognitive dissonance theory. An introduction to the theory of cognitive dissonance 1956 note. It emerged in the field of social psychology forced compliance theory is the idea that authority or some other perceived higherranking person can force a lowerranked individual to make statements or perform acts that violate their better judgment.
In the current study, we extended cognitive dissonance theory by creating a new framework of social influence. University of groningen patterns of cognitive dissonance in. A cognitive dissonance theory perspective on persuasion. Cognitive dissonance theory after 50 years of development. However, the dwindling interest in dissonance theory did not have a long run. In 1954, a cult leader predicted the end of the world. Alternatively, the smoker could reduce dissonance by changing his cognition about the effect of smoking on health and believe that smoking does not have a. Mar 07, 2018 cognitive dissonance theory and experiments. Cognitive dissonance and beliefs according to cognitive dissonance theory, when two or more cognitive elements such as behaviors and attitudes. Here, joel cooper presents a comprehensive analysis of the state of dissonance theory, charting the progress of the theory and assessing its impact. Leon festinger was the first psychologist to study cognitive dissonance around the 1950s, and his works, such as books and experiments, helped to shed light on the ways in which humans act to decrease cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance theory holds that our reactions to these sorts of psychological stimuli tend to fall somewhere along a continuum on which each point represents a strategy for returning our consciousnesses into cognitive balance huegler, 2006. Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his attitudes or between his behaviour and attitudes. Introduced by leon festinger in 1957and since that time debated, refined, and debated again by psychologistscognitive dissonance is defined as the aversive state of arousal that occurs when a person holds two or more cognitions that are inconsistent with each other.
The field of experimental social psychology is appropriately interested in using novel theoretical approaches to implement change in the social world. How cognitive dissonance affects us in crazy political. The effects of a prevention intervention using cognitive. Cognitive dissonance challenges a possibility of human evolution. Abstractcognitive dissonance occurs when ones belief is contradicting with the behavior, according to festingers. Some of this article is copied from saul mcleod who published it in 2008, updated 2014 cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This theory would predict that the individual will attempt to take some action to reduce dissonance. The effects of cognitive dissonance on inappropriate emotional reactions lenore b. In 1957, leon festinger introduced the theory of cognitive dissonance to psychology. The ben franklin effect relates closely to cognitive dissonance theory, and generally suggests that someone who does a favor for someone else is more likely to like them or do another favor, than. This result is not entirely unsurprising, given previous research which shows the difficulty of. Cognitive dissonance cd is a discomfort caused by holding conflicting elements of knowledge. Cognitive dissonance theory festinger, 1957 continues to develop and inspire.
Cognitive dissonance theory an overview sciencedirect topics. Pdf a theory of cognitive dissonance semantic scholar. Pdf cognitive dissonance theory festinger researchgate. What are the consequences of prolonged cognitive dissonance. What is perhaps less known is that such clash has a name in social psychology, and that it has. Although frequently invoked by mainstream conservatives to superficially skewer liberals incoherence and hypocrisy, cognitive dissonance should be. The advances in the history of cognitive dissonance theory. People are then motivated to reduce the dissonance, often in. Oct 28, 2014 cognitive dissonance and how it effects us. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Apr 10, 20 cognitive dissonance challenges a possibility of human evolution. Finally, the authors present results from experiments examining predictions derived from the actionbased model and neural processes involved in dissonance reduction.
Exposure to accurate information about acquaintance rape should create cognitive dissonance in those persons who are accepting of rape and rape myths. As people generally have an innate desire to avoid this discomfort, cognitive dissonance has a significant effect on a persons. Psychologist leon festinger first described the theory of cognitive dissonance in 1957. Cognitive dissonance and its effects on religious beliefs. Examples include explaining things away or rejecting new information that conflicts with their existing beliefs. The theory of cognitive dissonance started as a very simple observation by leon festinger that people do not like to deal with inconsistency.
Cognitive dissonance is the psychological discomfort that we feel when our minds entertain two contradictory concepts at the same time. Cognitive dissonance in relationships everyday health. A series of mock juror experiments seeking to understand the effects of emotional trial stimuli i. An introduction to cognitive dissonance theory 7 in the first experiment designed to test these theoretical ideas, aronson and mills 1959 had women undergo a severe or mild initiation to become. Cognitive dissonance has been one of the most enduring and successful theories in the history of social psychology. It can thus be concluded that the theory of cognitive dissonance is a nomothetic theory one that seeks universal and general laws. Cognitive theories of motivation rely on your thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes to explain your motivation. Exploring cognitive dissonance between college students. Cognitive dissonance is the psychological concept of the feeling of tension that happens when someone holds two conflicting beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time. Impacts of cognitive dissonance in the workplace safety. Oct 21, 2019 cognitive dissonance is a theory in social psychology. The origins of cognitive dissonance evidence from childre n and monkeys louisa c. Cognitive dissonance has been an important and influential theory since leon festinger published his classic work in 1957. Null effects are diffi cult to explain and subject to multiple alternatives.281 887 1363 78 1256 1334 574 637 597 1187 561 948 498 423 989 1082 932 513 1464 991 1045 611 734 1241 660 407 1485 1083 412 284 724 1180